Homework

Սովորել հետևյալ բառերը և յուրաքանչյուրով կազմել 1 նախադասություն

To be ill – հիվանդ լինել

To be present-ներկա լինել

To be absent- բացակա լինել-

To be on duty-հերթապահ լինել

To be sad-տխուր լինել

To be glad- ուրախ լինել

To be happy- երջանիկ լինել

To be hungry- սոված լինել

To be full up-կուշտ լինել(ստամոքս)

To be fed up- կուշտ լինել(կոկորդ)

To be full of – լիքը լինել ինչ-որ բանով

To be hot- 1․ կծու 2․ շոգ լինել

To be warm- 1․ տաք 2․ ջերմ լինել

To be cold- 1․սառը 2․ ցուրտ լինել

To be cool – զով լինել

To be sour- թթու լինել

To be sweet- քաղցր լինել

To be bitter- դառը լինել

To be tasty- համեղ լինել

Our college – կարդալ, թարգմանել, պատմել

1.Գրել ձեր անվան նշանակությունը ․

“The meaning of my name”

2.Տեղադրել am,is, are

  1. My mother … a teacher.
  2. My brother and I … good tennis players.
  3. Ann … at home. Her children … at school.
  4. My keys … in the bag.
  5. I … interested in football.
  6. I … afraid of dogs.
  7. Your hands … cold.
  8. They … in the garden.
  9. Mary … in her car. She …on her way home.
  10. We …. at a lesson.
  11. It … an English newspaper.
  12. The walls in our classroom … yellow.
  13. The door and the window … white.
  14. This man …. an engineer.
  15. Her mother … Italian, and her father … Australian.

3. Նախադասությունները դարձնել հարցական և ժխտական․

1․Her name is Jane.

2.It is a black cup.

3. This is Yerevan’s map.

4. That film is good.

5. They are students of “Photography” department.

6. Those men are doctors.

7. Tom and Ben are best friends.

8.This is my exercise book.

9. Moscow is a big city.

10. I am a quiet person.

Library and Archives, Canada — 54 million items

Canada is home to the world’s fourth largest library, the Library and Archives of Canada, which is maintained directly by the federal government of the country. The institution is assigned the immense task of preserving Canada’s heritage documentaries and making it available to the people of the country. The current collection includes nearly 20 million books, 24 million photographs, private and government archives, aboriginal magazines, non-fiction and fiction films, Canadian periodicals, and more. Some of the most prized items of the library include the proclamation of the Canadian Constitution Act, a 1st Century book by historian Flavius Josephus, a chair belonging to Glenn Gould, and the British North America Act. The Library and Archives of Canada was formed in 2004 by the amalgamation of the functions performed by the National Library of Canada and the National Archives of Canada and reports directly to the Parliament of the country.

3. New York Public Library — 55 million items

The system of libraries in New York, the New York Public Library, is world famous for its extensive collection of 55 million items including books, periodicals, musical records and other publications and albums. The amalgamation of small and large libraries including libraries of book lovers and wealthy millionaires of New York resulted in the creation of this large network of libraries which are currently funded by both government and private institutions. The main branch of the library is located on Fifth Avenue in New York at the intersection with 42nd Street. In 1965, it was designated as a National Historic Landmark. Today, the New York Public Library library has 4 research libraries, branch libraries in Bronx, State Island and Manhattan and several smaller libraries affiliated to it.

2. British Library — 150 million items

The British Library is the world’s second largest library, and can proudly boast of its collection of 150 million books, manuscripts, magazines, music recordings and scores, patents, databases and much more. The library is the national library of the United Kingdom and is located in the capital of England, between the Euston and St. Pacras railway stations in London. The library was established by the British Library Act 1972 as an independent entity on July 1st, 1973. Some of the notable collections of this library include the Diamond Sutra, the earliest printed publication of the world, a notebook of Leonardo da Vinci, Codez Arundel, Gutenberg Bibles, and Lewis Carroll’s famous manuscript of Alice’s Adventures Under Ground

The Problems of a teenager

The life of a teenager can be complicated sometimes. It is a difficult age and there are many problems on the way of becoming adults. For example, the choice of free-time activities, parent-child misunderstanding, the choice of future profession, dealing with the first love and so on. All teenagers have their own views on their life and future. They often stay alone with their thoughts because nobody seems to understand them. In this situation it’s better to talk to someone who is more experienced in life matters. One of the most common problems is the misunderstanding between teens and their parents. It has always been a problem but each generation becomes more difficult than the previous. Teenagers think that they are old enough to have their own opinion, while their parents don’t take their opinion into account. It is not right. Adults should try to give more attention to their children especially at such a difficult age. Teenagers also need more freedom of choice and less pressure. They are the future of our country and a lot depends on what kind of people they will become. The problem of drug is also actual at this age. Many teenagers suffer from drug addiction. It often leads to health problems and serious consequences. Other issues include smoking and drinking alcohol. Teenagers often meet their first love. It is a wonderful time for them and one of the best stages of life. This event stays in one’s memory forever. Unfortunately, the first love can have unhappy endings. It leads to problems in communication even with the best friends. Clearly there are a lot of problems in teenagers’ lives. However, there are some wonderful moments that can happen only when you are young. So, it’s better to enjoy the time!

Did you know that growing tree to produce chocolate is saving a rain forest? At first, the idea sound contradictory; you would expect that to grow cacao trees you would first have to clear the forest. But, in the Dominican Republic, local people, who depend on the land for their income, have awakened to the brilliant idea that they can plant and grow cacao on land that was previously cleared for cattle. Their secret is to grow organic cacao, which can be sold for a much higher price than that grown with the use of chemicals. So, growing organic cacao provides a permanent income for farmers, and, furthermore does it without destroying any more forest. Did you know that you are abusing your dog if you feed it chocolate? Many dogs love chocolate snacks, but too much chocolate can be harmful for dogs. Chocolate contains “theobrommine” a chemical found in cocoa beans that can cause a variety of medical problems for dogs. Some of these are quite severe, and could possibly lead to death. So if your dog exhibits symptoms such as a fluctuating heartbeat, or vomiting, it’s possible that a chocolate “treat” was the cause.

(0.5 points) Chocolate is a a.

a tree b. a plant c. a crop

2. (0.5 points) Growing natural cocoa helps save a. Its crops b. the local residents c. the forest

3. (2 points) Growing cocoa is very ……… for the locals a. easy b. profitable c. necessary

4. (2 points) You can …….. your dog by too much chocolate. a. kill b. treat c. hurt

5. (1.5 points) The main idea of the text about producing chocolate is a. It is easy, cheap and profitable b. It is a secret that only locals know about c. It is not destroying the environment

6. (1.5 points) The main idea of the text about the dog and chocolate is

a. All dogs love chocolate b. All dogs exhibit symptoms of some illness when eating chocolate c. Usage of much chocolate can lead to abusing a pet

7. (1 point) The word contradictory means a. non-believable b. wrong c. conflicting

8. (1 point) To be awakened to the idea means a. to believe b. to realize c. to reject

People all over the world love listening to music and most have their favourite songs which they listen to again and again. But how did it all start? When could people first choose the music they wanted to listen to?

The 1900s: The player piano 

In the late nineteeth and early twentieth centuries, pianos became very popular and rich families bought player pianos. A player piano plays music that is programmed on paper rolls with holes in them and you can also play it like a normal piano. In the mid 1920s player pianos began to disappear — mainly because the radio (it was called the wireless in those days) got more popular.

The 1910s: The first phonographs

As early as 1877, there were phonographs to play music on and by the 1910, many families had one. The music was on ‘records’ made of aluminium foil. People could listen to them only a few times before the foil broke. Later the music was on wax cylinders. These could hold longer recordings (two to four minutes), and people could play them more often.

1920-1940s: Gramophones and record players

Gramophones were similar to the phonographs, but they used flat  vinyl disks and not cylinders to hold the music. The disks went round, and first a steel needle then later a small diamond , ‘took’ the music off the record. Some music specialists and disc jockeys still use vinyl records todey.

The 1960s onwards: cassettes and the Walkman

In the 1960s, the first cassette recorders became popular. A big step towards modern technology was the invention of the first portable cassette player, the ‘Walkman’, by the Japanse company, Sony in 1979. For the first time, people could listen to their favourite music while they were travelling, doing sports, or going for walks.

 

Olivia’s story

Olivia was sitting at her desk , writing a story. It was about a far away planet, XR017 . Lots of people were living on the planet and there was not enough space for everyone , so the President of XR017  sent five spaceships to find out more about the Earth . As they were getting near the Earth ,four of the spaceships caught fire .Only one of them got to the Earth and landed safely…
They explored and found out that the Earth was more comfortable for living. They wrote a letter and sent it to their planet. The president decided to visit the country. When he came to Earth, he saw how beautiful and comfortable it was, and he decided to seize it. He destroyed the earth with his own people and dwelt there.He destroyed the earth with his own people and lived there.

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Some words can be both countable and uncountable depending on how they are used.

  • Would you like a chocolate?
  • Would you like some chocolate?

In a box of chocolates, the chocolates are countable and you can take one.
When you have a bar of chocolate the chocolate is uncountable and you can take some.

There are several other nouns that can be both countable and uncountable.

  • Can I have a glass of water, please?
  • There’s some broken glass on the pavement.

Glass’ is one. Many foodstuffs can be countable or uncountable. Think about the difference between ‘an ice cream’ and ‘some ice cream’ and ‘a coffee’ and ‘some coffee

‘few/a few’ and ‘little/a little’

We use few and a few with countable nouns and we use little and a little with uncountable nouns.

  • A few friends are coming round for dinner tonight.
  • We’ve got a little time before our train leaves. Shall we go to a museum?

A few and a little both mean ‘some’. They have a positive meaning.

  • I’ve got very few friends here. I feel really lonely.
  • We’ve got very little time – hurry up or we’ll miss the train.

Few and little both mean ‘almost none’. They have a negative meaning.

Commonly confused words

  • I’d like an information about train times please
  • I’d like some information about train times please.

Although ‘information’ is countable in many languages, it is uncountable in English.

  • Have you had any news from Pete?
  • I haven’t brought much luggage with me.
  • Can you give me some advice please?

As well as information, the following words are all uncountable: newsluggageadvicefurnitureweathertravel.

Direct and Indirect Speech Exercise

CHANGE THE FOLLOWING INTO INDIRECT SPEECH.

1. The girl said that it ………………………………. her great pleasure to be there that evening.

gives
gave
would give

2. The man ……………………………………. that he must go as soon as possible.

said
asked
told

3. She said that she ……………………………………. to see any of them and asked them to go away.

did not want
does not want
had not wanted

4. The teacher says that if you work hard you ……………………………….

will pass
would pass

5. He said that he ……………………………………

won
has won
had won

6. He proposed that they ………………………………… wait for her return.

shall
will
should

7. Alice exclaimed how clever …………………………………..

was she
she was

8. The young man asked which way she ………………………………….

has gone
had gone
would go

9. He asked me where ……………………………… going.

I was
was I
I am

10. She requested them to wait there till she ……………………………..

returns
returned
will return

King of the Pumpkins

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BY CHRIS ROSE

Some of these stories, I think, might have been true. I was never sure, and it was difficult to find out. This time though, with this story about the King of the Pumpkins, it was going to be easy to find out if she was telling the truth or not.

Some people used to call my mother a witch, but I knew that she wasn’t a witch. Just a bit strange perhaps. And she used to talk nonsense. Perhaps it was also because of the black cat we had. People say that witches always have black cats, and we had a black cat. But Mog wasn’t a witch’s cat. He was just a regular black cat. Mog could talk, though, I have to say that. Perhaps that isn’t so regular in a cat, now I think about it.

Այս պատմությունները ոմանք, կարծում են, կարող էին ճիշտ լինել: Ես երբեք չեմ եղել վստահ, եւ դա դժվար էր պարզել: Այս անգամ, սակայն, այս պատմությունը Փուփկինս արքայի մասին, հեշտ էր պարզել, թե արդյոք նա ասում էր ճշմարտությունը, թե ոչ:
Որոշ մարդիկ մայրիկին կախարդ էին կոչում, բայց ես գիտեի, որ նա կախարդ չէ: Պարզապես մի քիչ տարօրինակ է: Եվ նա խոսում էր անհեթեթության մասին: Գուցե դա նաեւ սեւ կատուի պատճառով էր: Մարդիկ ասում էին, որ վհուկները միշտ սեւ կատուներ են ունենում : Բայց Մոգը կախարդական կատու չէր: Նա պարզապես սովորական սեւ կատու էր: Մոգը կարող է խոսել, չնայած ես պետք է ասեմ, թերեւս դա կատվի մեջ այնքան կանոնավոր չէ։

April 1st

Nouns can be countable or uncountable. When you learn a new noun you should make a note of whether it is countable or uncountable as we use different words with countables and uncountables.

Countable nouns

  • There is a cat in the garden.
  • There are some birds in the trees.

For positive sentences we can use a/an or some (with a plural verb form)

  • There isn’t a dog in the garden.
  • There aren’t any birds in the tree.

For negatives we can use a/an or any (with a plural verb form).

  • Is there an orange on the tree?
  • Are there any chairs in the garden?
  • How many chairs are there?

In questions we use a/an, any or how many.

Uncountable nouns

  • There is some milk on the floor.

Uncountable nouns have no plural. The verb form is singular and we use some.

  • Is there any sugar?
  • How much wine is there?

In questions we can use any or how much.

Other expressions of quantity

  • There are a lot of apples on the trees.
  • There is a lot of snow on the road.

A lot of can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.

  • Bill Gates has much money.

Notice that we don’t usually use ‘much’ or ‘many’ in positive sentences. We use ‘a lot of’.

  • Bill Gates has a lot of money.
  • There’s a lot of beer but there isn’t much wine.
  • There are a lot of carrots but there aren’t many potatoes.

We use not many with countable nouns and not much with uncountable nouns.

Some nouns can be both countable and uncountable, depending on how they are used, and some nouns are commonly confused. These are covered in another section.

EXERCISES

. Write c for countable and u for uncountable:

time – books – sugar – milk – pens – hair – chairs –
meat – butter – pencils – bread – jam – friends – fingers –
flour – apples – oil – cars – salt – houses – cheese –
rice – tea – games – tomatoes – cream – honey – carrots –
a) a / an + singular countable noun ( a pen, an apple) some + plural countable nouns – positive sentences ( There are some cars)

some + uncountable nouns – positive sentences ( There is some oil)

any – we use any in negative sentences and in most questions.(countable and uncountable nouns) I don’t have any pens. There isn’t any salt.

Do you have any sisters?

2. Choose a, an, some or any
a) It is

any
some
a
an
dog. b) Have you got

any
some
a
an
friends? c) I bought

a
an
some
any
milk.

d) Linda has not got

a
any
some
an
pets. e) There is

any
some
a
an
orange on the table. f) Tim eats

a
an
some
any
cheese every day.

g) We don’t have

a
an
some
any
bread. h) My brother found

a
an
some
any
money. i) My sister found

a
an
some
any
pen.

j) Do you have

a
an
some
any
eggs? k) There are

a
an
some
any
students in the classroom. l) Is there

a
an
some
any
pencil on the desk?

b) how much – we use with uncountable nouns how many – we use with countable nouns.

3. Choose How much or How many
a)

How much
How many
cheese do you buy?

b)

How much
How many
books are there in your bag?

c)

How much
How many
films did Tom see last week?

d)

How much
How many
money do you spend every week?

e)

How much
How many
friends does Linda have?

f)

How much
How many
sugar do we need?

g)

How much
How many
tomatoes are there in the fridge?

h)

How much
How many
meat are you going to buy?

i)

How much
How many
milk did you drink yesterday?

j)

How much
How many
apples do you see?